Second Year GBT questions

  1. Peloponnesian War; I; II,1-46
What reasons does Thucydides give for the Trojans' ability to hold out against the Achaeans for so long? And, what do the reasons he gives indicate about his philosophy of history?

What is Thucydides purpose in writing the History of the Peloponnesian War?

What role did Corcyra play in the growth of hostilities between Athens and Sparta?

Who makes the stronger case in the dispute over Corcyra?

1.71 Why did Corinthians call the Spartans' foreign policy "out of date"?

1.73 What grounds did the Athenians give for the imperialism?

Compare the way enemies speak to one another in the Iliad to the way they speak in the Peloponnesian War.

Were the Athenians justified in attacking Potidaea?

For an excellent video condensation of Thucydides, go to  You might also find the political commentary of the man who wrote the introduction to the Landmark Edition interesting-

2. Peloponnesian War; II,47-end; III; IV, 1-41

II.53 What effects did the plague have on Athenian life?

II.60 I would like each of you to summarize two of the most salient arguments that Pericles gives in the speech beginning at II.60.

II.65 What evidence does Thucydides give for the statement, "power was really in the hands of the first citizen"?

III.37 What weakness in the Athenian character does Cleon point out in his speech?

III.37-48 Who shows himself more similar to Plato’s "pandering orator" in the Gorgias, Cleon or Diodotus?

III.82ff What does Thucydides shows us about human nature in his description of the Corcyran civil war?

For a fine program on the Trireme, please see

3. Peloponnesian War; IV, 42-end; V; VI, 1-32

Compare and contrast the Milean dialogue with Pericles’ Funeral Oration.

4. Peloponnesian War; VI, 33-end, VII, VIII

Why were the Athenians willing to begin their campaign against the Sicilians when they were already so heavily engaged in the war with Sparta?

In 6.69 Nicias speech is called "encouraging." Given the dreary tone of the speech, how can that be a correct assessment?

Euphemus gives a number of arguments in 6.83 that do not seem to square with the opinions voiced in the Melean dialogue. What are the differences and why have the Athenians changed their tone?

When Alcibiades speaks to the Spartans, how does he explain away the significance of his treasonous behavior towards Athens?

How did the Athenians come to be the besieged rather than the besiegers? (7.11)

Why is the Spartan attack on Decelea so significant?

Compare the military significance of the Athenian defeat in the Great Harbor to the Persian defeat at Salamis.

Why was Nicias execution sadly ironic?

5. Republic; I-II 367e

How does Socrates refute the first definition of justice (i.e. to speak truth and pay your debts)?

Socrates is often held up as a great advocate of reason. Doesn’t his continual refutation of proposed answers show that he is really not interested in finding a reasonable explanation for the various questions he asks?

What is the second attempted definition of justice?

How does Socrates come to the ironical conclusion that "justice is not good for much"? (333)

Explain Thrasymachus’ definition of justice.

What does Socrates teach Thrasymachus using the pilot example?

How do Socrates’ and Thrasymachus’ views on the role of the shepherd differ? (345)

How does Socrates’ bring Thrasymachus to the point where he admits that "neither arts nor governments provide for their own interests"? (346)

What is an "end"? Explain with your own examples. (352)

What is the example of Gyges supposed to prove?


to\n me\n mousiko\n dh/pou fro/nimon, to\n de\ a!mouson a!frona.
Republic 349 Perseus

6. Republic; II 367e-IV 427c

Explain Socrates statement that Justice can be a virtue of an individual as well as the State. (369)

Explain the advantages to the division of labor described in 369.

What is the cause of war? 373

What modern terms would correspond to Plato’s terms "gymnastics" and "music"?

Why does the Guardian need both gymnastics and music?

Why should the stories of Hesiod be banned? 378

Why must the story of Achilles embassy be censured?

On what grounds did Aesclepius dispense his medicines?

398 The modes that Socrates mentions can be found on your piano using the scales below.  Some hymn examples are also given from the Trinity Hymnal.  You might have fun trying to pick out the listed melodies just using the keys given in the scales.  Can you hear the characteristic different sounds that delighted or troubled Socrates?  More good information can be found at

Dorian  D e f g a b c D  "What wondrous Love is This" #261 "Scarborough Fair"
Phyrgian E f g a b c d E "O Sacred Head Now Wounded"  #247
Lydian F g a b c d e F  "ET Flying Theme"
Mixolydian G a b c d e f G "Old Joe Clark"
Aeolian A b c d e f g A "God Rest Ye Merry Gentlemen" #211
Ionian C d e f g a b C "Joy to the World" #195
Locrian B c d e f g a B Not really used at all because of its diminished fifth.

 Why must a judge not be young? 409

What happens when an education is lacking in either gymnastics or music?

What is the audacious fiction that Plato recommends telling the people in order to make them more loyal citizens?

Why must the Guardians have no personal property?

At the beginning of book IV, how does Socrates answer the objection that his extreme laws make the lives of his subjects miserable?

Why will poor cities triumph over the rich?

koina\ ta\ tw~n fi/lwn
The things of friends are common. Republic 424

7. Republic; IV 427d-VI 502c *Paper 1 due*

How is the just man like the just State? (435)

What three elements in the State correspond to three elements in man?

Why will the just man be at peace with himself? (443)

How can marriages be beneficial to the State? (459)

Why does Socrates’ argue that men and women should receive substantially the same education?

Why does Socrates think children should be spectators of war?

Most of what Plato says has some plausibilty. Why do you think so much of what he recommends for family life is simply absurd and odd?

Why are some of Socrates’ ideas called "waves?"

What is the answer to the question, "Who then are the true philosophers?"? (475)

Explain the point Socrates makes with the analogy of the mutinous ship.

calepa\ ta\ kala/ -
The good is hard - Republic 435

8. Republic; VI502d-VII

Explain the analogy comparing the relation between the sun and sight with that between the Good and the soul. (508)

Draw the "divided line" and label each section appropriately. (510)

Draw the "cave." (511)

How does the cave resemble man’s ignorance?

a}gewme/trhtoj mhdei\j ei}si/tw.
He who does not study geometry may not enter. - From the doorway of Plato's Academy.

Cave Video -  or

9. Republic; VIII-IX

Plato describes the progressive decline of governments from aristocracy (the most perfect form of government) to tyranny. Please be prepared to enumerate each of stages (oligarchy, democracy, etc.) governments go through while moving between these two forms. Also be prepared to discuss the reasons Plato gives as to why a government progresses from one stage to the next.

In section 544, Socrates states that "governments vary as the dispositions of men vary." Explain what Socrates means by that.

Why do timocratic rulers not allow philosophers to rule? 547

Describe the disposition of the timocratic man.

Why is it that in a oligarchy if you are not rich, you are pauper?

Describe the causes behind the development of the oligarchic man from a timocratic upbringing. 553

How do democratic men come to disrespect oligarchic men?

Describe the causes behind the development of the democratic man from an oligarchic upbringing. 561

Socrates asks of a democracy, "in such a State, can liberty have any limit?" As Christians, do we have an answer to this question? 562

How does the "people’s protector" become a ruthless tyrant? 565


10. Republic; X

How is a painter similar to a mirror?

How is the maker of a bed also only an imitator?

Why is God the "real maker of a real bed?"

Why is Homer of no use to the State?

Are you convinced by Plato’s arguments regarding the effects of watching theater? Why or why not? 606

Why is their "ancient war" between philosophy and poetry? 607

Explain Plato’s argument for the immortality of the soul.

Has Plato given a solution to the problem put forward by the story of Gyges’ ring?

Why does Plato end the Republic with the tale of Er?

11. Aeneid, I-V *Paper 2 due*

Why do you think Virgil mimics the Iliad and Odyssey so often?

How did the Greeks fool the Trojans into bringing the horse into the city?

Why did Aeneas forget his wife?

Table Of Gods And Goddesses: Greek and Roman Names

Greek name Roman Name Purpose
Zeus Jupiter King of the gods
Hera Juno Queen of the gods, goddess of marriage of childbirth
Pallas Athena Minerva Goddess of wisdom
Poseidon Neptune King of the sea, patron of horses
Aphrodite Venus Goddess of love
Eros Cupid Son of Venus, god of love
Ares Mars God of war
Artemis Diana Goddess of the moon, of the hunt and of chastity
Phoebus Apollo Apollo Sun-God, god of healing,
Patron of the arts
Demeter Ceres Goddess of seed-time and Harvest
Persephone Proserpina Queen of the underworld,
Daughter of Ceres
Hades Pluto King of the underworld
Kronos Saturn Father of Jupiter, Pluto, Neptune, ruler of the order of gods
Hermes Mercury Messenger of the gods
Dionysus Bacchus God of wine
Hephaestus Vulcan God of fire

12. Aeneid, VI-VIII

What role did Helen have in the death of Deiphobus?

Who are the two "sons" spoken of in line 6.1120?

What does Anchises say the future destiny of Rome is?

What omens did king Latinus receive that convinced him Lavinia ought not to marry Turnus?

What omen convinced the Trojans their days of wandering were over?

What means does Juno employ to incite war in Italy?

Why is kind Evander willing to side with Aeneas?

Compare the shield of Achilles with that of Aeneas.

13. Aeneid, IX-XII

What task do Euryalus and Nisas attempt to accomplish?

What section of the Iliad does book nine resemble?

How is Turnus tricked into leaving the battlefield? (Book X)

Summarize the conditions set forward in the vows that are to govern the outcomes of Turnus and Aeneas’ combat. (Book XII)

What misleading omen did Juturna perform in order to restart the fighting?

Why was Turnus sword broken so easily?

Does this story have a satisfactory conclusion? (Remember the Iliad!)

14. Nicomachean Ethics(Aristotle) I-II

How does Aristotle argue that there must be "chief good." (I.2)

Why is Aristotle's inquiry into the nature of happiness fundamentally a political one? (I.2)

What is an "end"? (I.5)

Explain Aristotle’s objections to Plato’s understanding of universal form of "good." (I.6)

Why is an understanding of the universal form of "the good" useless? (I.6)

What is Aristotle’s definition of "the good"? (I.7)

What is man’s "end"? (I.7)

Does Aristotle think that man has virtue in himself? (II.1)

What is "the mean"? (II.2)

Why can one not becoming virtuous by solely listening to Philosophy? (II.4)

Why are the virtues not passions? (II.5)

Give an example of the principle "it is possible to fail in many ways while to succeed is possible only in one way." (II.6)

Explain Aristotle’s statement, "Moral virtue is a mean." (II.9)

Pa~sa te/cnh kai\ pa~sa me/qodoj, o{moi/wj de\ pra~xij te kai\ proai/resij, a}gaqou~ tino\j e}fi/esqai dokei~.
Nicomachean Ethics 1.

15. Nicomachean Ethics III; IV 2-3; V 1-7 *Paper 3 due*

What are "mixed" actions? (III.1)

What are compulsory actions? (III.1)

How do men become unjust? (III.1)

Does Aristotle hold to the existence of a "free-will?" (III.2)

Proai/resij -choice.

About what things can we deliberate? (III.3)

Why do we deliberate about means not ends? (III.3)

What does "man is a moving principle" mean? (III.5)

answer: Headmaster with a U-Haul.

Define Aristotle’s ideal courage. (III.6)

What are the so-called five courages and what are Aristotle’s criticisms of them? (III.8)

Define temperance. (III.10)

What is a "belly-god?" (III.11) - no relation to jelly-bean

On IV. 2

The word translated "magnificence" is megaloprepeiaj (megaloprepeias). This word literally translated means, "great-impression."

On IV. 3

The word translated "pride" is megalovuxia (megalopsuchia). This word literally translated means, "great-souled." The word in the NT translated "pride" is u{perhfani/a (huperephania) or literally, "over-appearance."

On V.1

The word translated "justice" is dikaiosunhj (dikaiosunes). This same word is used in the NT for "righteousness."

On V.3

"Qua" means "in so far as it is."

Explain this sentence. 1133b;16-19 (V.5)

What is the difference between legal and natural Justice? (V.7)

frone/w To think
To be insane
To be sane
Good sense
To teach
proai/resij choice
megaloprepeiaj magnificence (great-appearance)
megalovucia Pride (Great-souled) magnanimity
o}ligo/vu~coj Pusillanimous
o}ligo/vu~coj Faint hearted (NT and Septuagint)
uperhfanoij Pride (over appearance)
dikaiosunhj Justice - Righteousness

16. Nicomachean Ethics VI; VII 1-3; VII 11-14

What is the cause behind choice? (VI.2)

Why must choice involve both reason and desire?

Do you agree with Agathon’s statement?

Give some examples of scientific knowledge. (VI.3)

Define scientific knowledge.

What is practical wisdom? (VI.5)

Can the first principles of scientific knowledge be an object of scientific knowledge? Why or why not. (VI.6)

What is intuitive reason?

Define wisdom. (VI.7)

Why do the philosophers have philosophic but not practical wisdom?

Why are young men not good sources of practical wisdom? (VI.8)

Define understanding. (VI.10)

Define judgment (VI.11)

Do incontinent people act knowingly? (VII.3)

Explain two of Aristotle’s’ arguments for why pleasure can be a good. (VII.12)

Does Aristotle think that wealth is necessary for happiness? (VII.13)

Explain this phrase, "all things have by nature something divine in them."

- art
scientific knowledge
practical wisdom
philosophic wisdom
nou~j -
intuitive reason

17. Nicomachean Ethics VIII; IX

What advantages does Aristotle see in friendship? (VIII.1)

What are the necessary conditions for friendship to exist? (VIII.2)

Give the three types of friendship. (VIII.3)

What type of friendship is easily dissolved and why? (VIII.3)

Why do young people often quickly change friends? (VIII.3)

Define perfect friendship. (VIII.3)

How does Christian charity differ from Aristotle’s understanding of friendship? (VIII.5)

How do love and friendship differ? (VIII.5)

Why cannot one be a "perfect friend" to many? (VIII.6)

How can children and parents be friends? (VIII.7)

Do you agree that it is impossible to be "friends" with God? (VIII.7)

What type of friendship can exist between those who are very different? (VIII.8)

How do tyranny and monarchy differ? (VIII.10)

Explain the statement, "it is the ideal of monarchy to be paternal rule." (VIII.10)

Can one be friends with a slave? (VIII.11)

Why is the friendship of utility full of complaints? (VIII.13)

Why is the good man at peace with himself? (IX.4)

Explain the statement, "goodwill is inactive friendship." (IX.5)

How is the love of poets and benefactors similar? (IX.7)

In what sense does Aristotle think that one should be a "lover of self"? (IX.8)

Does the happy man truly need friends? (IX.9)

How many friends should one have? (IX.10)

koina\ ta\ tw~n Fi/lwn. Nicomachean Ethics 1159b 30

18. Nicomachean Ethics X

Why did Eudoxis think that pleasure was good? (X.2)

Explain how Plato proved the good was not pleasure. (X.2)

How did Aristotle prove Plato was full of nonsense? (X.2)

Do all men aim at life or pleasure? (X.4)

Explain Aristotles' statement, "pleasure intensifies the activities." (X.5)

Explain Aristotles' statement, "each animal is thought to have a proper pleasure" (X.5)

Why is happiness an activity and not a state? (X.6)

Are the pleasures of amusement an end in themselves? (X.7)

Why is the philosopher the most self-sufficient of men? (X.7)

Why is the life of complete contemplation too high for man? (X.7)

Why must happiness be both contemplative and active? (X.8)

Does one need money to be a philosopher? (X.8)

Why do "the many" need law and punishment? (X.9)

Does Aristotle think that we ought to legislate morality? (X.9)

Final question from the Ethics.... drum roll please!


e}stin h{ eu}daimoni/a kat } a}reth\n e}ne/rgeia. Nicomachean Ethics X.7.1

19. De AnimaII: 1-7, 11-12

Explain- "Matter is potentiality, form actuality" (II.1)

Why does Aristotle dismiss the question as to whether the soul and body are one? (II.1)

If the eye were an animal, what would its soul be? (II.1)

Why is the soul of some plants potentially many? (II.2)

Why does Aristotle think that it was a mistake for former thinkers to place souls into bodies regardless of the bodies’ form? (II.2)

Enumerate the psychic powers. (II.3)

(A wuiji board is not necessary to answer this question!)

Explain Aristotle’s comparison of a triangle and its figure with the body and its’ soul. (II.3)

How can living things attempt to participate in the divine? (II.4)

In what three ways is the soul the cause of the body? (II.4)

Define "transparent." (II.7)

Why is light necessary for color? (II.7)

Why must there be a medium in order to see color? (II.7)

What does Aristotle’s think he proves by observing that an object cannot be viewed if it is placed on the eye itself? (II.11)

What is a sense? (II.12)

ἔστι δ' ἡ μὲν ὕλη δύναμις, τὸ δ' εἶδος ἐντελέχεια,
Nicomachean Ethics 412a 10

20. De Anima III: 3-13; I: 4, 408b 18-30

How are thinking and sensation similiar? (III.3)

How does Aristotle show the difference between sense and imagination? (III.3)

Aristotle says that if thinking is like perceiving, "the soul is acted upon by what is capable of being thought." Explain this sentence. (III.4)

How does Aristotle argue that the mind must not be attached to the body? (III.4)

"The mind is in a sense potentially whatever is thinkable, though actually nothing until it has thought" Explain. (III.4)

When one thinks of an inmaterial object, why are the thought and the object identical? Give examples. (III.4)

"Actual knowledge is identical with its object." Do you argee? Give an example. (III.7)

How do mind and appetite combine to produce movement? (III.10)

Why is the realizable good "that which moves without itself being moved?" (III.10)

Even though the mental functions decay, how does Aristotle argue that the mind itself does not decay? (I.4 408b 18-30)

δοκεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸ νοεῖν καὶ τὸ φρονεῖν ὥσπερ αἰσθάνεσθαί τι εἶναι

Both theoretical thought and practical deliberation appear to be a type of sensing something to exist.

De Anima III.3

21. Plutarch:Lives of Caesar and Cato the Younger *Paper 4 due*

Over the past year and a half we have study many types of character; orators, tyrants, the "great-souled", the courageous, the just. Which of these types is Caesar? Which is Cato?


What comparison did Caesar make that caused him to see himself of meager accomplishment?

What factor’s contributed to Caesar’s military success?

How did Caesar gain the favor of the people?

What event brought about the destruction of the library at Alexandria?

Plutarch says that Caesar "had a passion after honor." Do you agree?


What similarities do you see in the Roman political situation to that of our own today?

Why did Cato have such influence with the common people?

Why did Cato not follow the ambitious paths of Caesar?

Why did Cato kill himself? Is that act consistent with his character?

Magnanimity- Greatness of mind; that elevation or dignity of soul , which encounters danger and trouble with tranquility and firmness. which raises the possessor above revenge, and makes him delight in acts of benevolence, which make him disdain injustice and meanness, and prompts him to sacrifice personal ease, interest and safety for the accomplishment of useful and noble objects.

22. The Annals of Imperial Rome: BooksI-II (p 31-119 in Penquin)

Compare Tacitus’ treatment of Roman history to that of Plutarch. What similarities and differences do you see?

Recount the two views regarding Augustus’ rise to monarchial status. (I.9)

How was Percennius able to incite rebellion among the troups? (I.17)

How was Agrippina able to help quell the uprising.

What sort of leader did Germanicus show himself by his conduct during the uprising?

What was the significance of the rise of the "treason law?"

Do you think that Tacitus thought well of Germanicus?

23. The Annals of Imperial Rome: Books III-VI; XV.32-47; (p. 119-227 & 360-367 in Penquin)

Explain Tacitus understanding of the origin of law. (III. 25)

What was the threat that woman posed to armies? (III.33)

What type of character does Tiberius show in his conduct regarding the laws concerning excessive indulgence? (III. 52)

Why did Tiberus call the roman senators, "Men fit to be slaves." (III. 64)

Explain the statement, "Strengthen the executive, and you weaken the law." (III. 68)

How did Sejanus disgrace the empire during his rise to power? (IV. 2)

How did Sejanus make it appear as thought Drusus poisoned himself inadvertently? (IV. 9) Why is this story doubtful?

Explain Tacitus rational for the attention he pays all of the social details that occur in his history. (IV. 30)

Why would Livilla’s marriage split the imperial house? (IV. 38)

How did the disaster caused by Atilius end up ennobling the Romans? (IV. 60)

Explain the positions of the two different schools concerning the course our lives take. (VI. 20)

What rumors does Tacitus report about Nero starting the great fire of Rome (XV.42-47)?

Which social group did Nero blame for the fire? How did he punish them? Why did Tacitus think that they were singled out?

O homines ad servitutem paratos - Men fit to be slaves! The Annals p. 150

24. Theaetetus Beginning to 186

Why is Theaetetus' initial definition of knowledge insufficient?

Why does Socrates call himself a midwife?

Why does Socrates refer to himself as "barren?"

Is Theaetetus theory that "knowledge is perception" at all plausible?

Explain how Socrates thinks that they eye can see.
How does this understanding of sense relations lead to the position that " there is no one self-existent thing, but everything is becoming and in relation".

Why is it important to consider the case of dreams and madness?

Why is it that Theaetetus cannot assert that as he speaks to Socrates he is not in fact dreaming?

What is the "manifest impossibility" involved in the assertion that "knowledge and perception are one" given our use of memory?

Explain how Socrates proves you can know and not know at the same time.

If man is the measure of all things why can there be no erroneous opinions?

Explain the sentence, "And does he not allow that his own opinion is false, if he admits that the opinion of those
who think him false is true? "

Explain the absurdity that Protagoras position leads to in the arena of politics.

Explain the positions of these two combatants in their philosophic war.

Explain the two types of motion.

Why does perception become impossible if all is in flux?

What conclusion does Socrates come to regarding the nature of knowledge?

What reasoning does Socrates use to come to the conclusion that knowledge does not consist in impressions of sense.

a}nqrw/poj me/tron -Man is the measure of all things.
En me\n a!ra toi~j maqh/masin (what one encounters) ou}k e!ni e}pisth/mh, e}n de\ t+~ peri\ e}kei/nwn sullogism+~ -Theatetus 186d

25. Theaetetus 187 to end -

Explain why it is difficult to conceive of our minds as thinking a false thought.

How do false impressions arise?

What types of wax are minds made of and what mental characteristics are thought to result from the various types?

Why is it possible to confuse 11 and 12 in the hand, but not in the mind?

Why is Socrates ashamed that he does not know what "to know" means?

What does Socrates try to illustrate using the aviary example?

Recount and explain the significance of Socrates dream.

Why do syllable have a definition but letters do not?

Why is it that the letter rather than the syllable truly known?

Explain the two ways in which the wagon may be known.

Why does the letter/syllable analogy break down?

}En me\n a!ra toi~j maqh/masin (what one encounters) ou}k e!ni e}pisth/mh, e}n de\ t+~ peri\ e}kei/nwn sullogism+~ -Theatetus 186d
τὸ μὲν γὰρ  τἀληθὲς δοξάζειν καλόντὸ δὲ ψεύδεσθαι αἰσχρόν. Theatetus 194

26. Physics IV 1-5, 8, III4-6 *Paper 5 due* -

Explain Aristotle's proof for the existence of place.

Summarize the six characteristics of place.

What is Aristotle's solution to Zeno's paradox that "place must be at a place which must be at a place which...."?

Explain the differences between place and form.

Why is place motionless?

Why do the heavens not have a place?

Why cannot void be a place?

Why is 1/0 undefined?
How long would it take a body to traverse a void?

Explain the five reason for the existence of the infinite.

Explain the phrase, "it is impossible that the infinite should be a thing which is itself infinite, separable from sensible objects"

Why cannot the infinite be either compound or simple?

In what sense does the infinite exist?

Explain infinite by division and infinite by addition.

ἄλλως μὲν οὖν οὐκ ἔστιν, οὕτως δ' ἔστι τὸ ἄπειρον, δυνάμει τε καὶ ἐπὶ καθαιρέσει
Physics 207a 7

27. Physics VIII 1, 5-7, 9-10 -

Explain Anaxagoras' and Empedocles' views regarding motion and the universe.

Why must motion exist in order for there to be time?
Why must time be eternal?

Why must motion be eternal?

Why are Love and Strife insufficient principles to account for motion?

Why must there be a first movent that moves itself?
Note- some translations use the word "mover" rather than "movent." Both terms mean, "that which imparts motion."

"So this reasoning also shows that when a thing is moved, if it is not moved immediately by something
that moves itself, the series brings us at some time or other to a movent of this kind. "

Why is mind the "unmoved movent?"

How might an object move itself?

How many unmoved movers are there?
When was the initial movement enacted?

Why must locomotion be the primary type of motion?

Why is rotation the primary locomotion?

Why cannot the finite be the cause of a motion during an infinite time?

Why cannot an infinite force reside in a finite magnitude?

Why must the movent occupy the circumference of the rotational motion and be itself motionless?

Why cannot the unmoved mover (movent) not have magnitude?
Has Aristotle proven the existence of God?

φανερὸν τοίνυν ὅτι ἀδιαίρετόν ἐστι καὶ ἀμερὲς καὶ οὐδὲν ἔχον μέγεθος.
Physics 267b 25

28. Metaphysics I 1; IV 1-4; VI 4

Compare art and experience.

Compare Aristotle's understanding of the nature of wisdom to biblical wisdom.

Explain why Aristotle thinks there should be one science devoted to the study of being.
Why is being the most fundamental attribute?

Note- The word qua can be fairly confusing. It means simply, "in so far as it is". When examining various terms, it is used to designate in what sense you are using a word. If you were having a discussion about the high cost of clothes, you would be discussing clothing qua price. If you were having discussion about the appearance of clothes, you would be discussing clothes qua appearance. If you were discussing what the fundamental nature of clothes are in themselves, you would be discussing clothes qua clothes.

Why must the principles "contrary attributes cannot apply to the same object at the same time" be the starting point for all other axioms? This principle is commonly referred to as the principle of non-contradiction.

Why cannot everything be proven?

Why should you not argue with those who are not willing to accept the principle of non-contradiction?

Why cannot words have a infinite number of meanings?

Why must those who deny the law of non-contradiction also deny essence and substance?
Why are some attributes accidental?

In what way does our everyday practice assume the law of non-contradiction?

pa/ntej a!nqrwpoi tou~ ei{de/nai o}re/gontai fu/sei.
Metaphysics Book I.1

29. Metaphysics VII 1-4, 16-17;VIII 1-2, 6; IX 6,8 -

Compare substance and matter.

"Propter se" means "for or on account of itself."

Explain the sense in which qualities exist.

Explain Aristotle's disagreements with the theory of forms.

When a Platonist looks at a table and says, "I know that is a table because it corresponds to the form of "tableness"", Aristotle thinks he is talking nonsense. Why?

How does Aristotle answer to the question, "Why are these materials a house?" differ from the one that Plato would give?

In what sense is matter also a substance?

Which phrase describes what a house actually is; "3 tons of bricks, 750 ft of cooper pipe, 3000 board ft. of wood, 530 Pd of metal fixtures...." or "a receptacle to shelter chattel and living beings"?

How is Aristotle using the "animal + biped" description of man to illustrate our understanding of the unity of various terms.

Philosophers have always tried to explain how we can look at two separate objects and identify them as the same thing. Plato explained this phenomena with the doctrine of the forms. Do you think that Aristotle has provided a satisfactory substitute for this theory?

gi/gnetai e}k th~j mnh/mhj e}mpeiri/a. h{ me\n e}mpeiri/a te/cnhn poiei~, h{ d } a}peiri/a tu/chn.

30. Metaphysics I 2-7; II,1; XII 6-10 -

What are the characteristics of a wise man?

Why were the primal elements not a sufficient explanation for the nature of things.

Why does an object's being affect the nature of its truth?

Explain Aristotle's rational for describing the divine as thought thinking on thinking.

Where do we find the good in nature?

"'The rule of many is not good; one ruler let there be.'
Why does Aristotle end with this quote?

Why is a cup a cup?


Type of Cause


Substance, essence

Essential cause



Material Cause


Source of change

Instrumental Cause

Factory owner

The Good

Final Cause

31. Phaedrus Beginning-257 -

Why does Socrates think that the first two speeches were impious?

w{j lu/koi a!rn a}gapw~s }, w$j pai~da filou~sin e}rastai.

32. Phaedrus 257-end -

What do we learn from the myth of the cicada?

In what sense do the orators write speeches "in the praise of an donkey"?

In what sense should the parts of a speech resemble the parts of a living being?

Why does Socrates' admire the one who can see the "unity and plurality"?

Why did Thamus lament the invention of letters?

What activities does Socrates hold to be superior to that of committing one's thought to paper?

t+~ o!nti grafome/noij e}n vuc*~ peri\ dikai/wn te kai\ kalw~n kai\ a}gaqw~n to/ te e}narge\j (
manifest) ei#nai kai\ te/leon kai\ a!xion spoudh~j (trouble) Phaedrus 278

33. The Nature of Things; I-III *Paper 6 due*

Book One

List similarities between Lucretius philosophy and the typical modern world-view.

What arguments does Lucretius use to prove the existence of invisible particles?

Why cannot the primary element be fire?

What arguments are given against the theory of homoeomeria?

Summarize Lucretius’ argument for the infinity of the universe.

Book Two

Why is the atomic swerve necessary to explain free-will?

Does Lucretius think we can believe in the gods?

How can sentient creatures be made of insentient atoms?

Book Three

What is the mind?

How does Lucretius prove the spirit mortal?

34. The Nature of Things; V-VI

Book 5

Explain Lucretius’ arguments against the divine creation of the world.

How did the stars and planets come to be formed?

Recount the process by which human civilization was formed.

What is the origin of laws and institutions?

What is the origin of piety?

Book 6

What are Lucretius explanations for thunder and lightning?

What causes earthquakes?

35. On the Incarnation;


Explain Athansius’ arguments for divine creation.

Why does evil lead to non-existence?


What was the divine dilemma?

Why was the incarnation necessary?


Why was divine revelation necessary?

What were the three means pagans could use to understand the nature of God?

What was the purpose of the miracles?


How do the disciples of Christ themselves show that the power of death has been conquered?


How is it possible for the Divine Word to dwell in material man?

John 1.1 E}n a}rch\ h#n o{ logo/j


For your papers, please see the listing given at the end of your reading list.